Bukhara is situated in the Silk Route and is more than 2,000 years old. It is the most complete example of a medieval city in Central Asia, with an urban fabric that has remained largely intact. Bukhara has inumerous monuments of interest including the famous tomb of Ismail Samani, a masterpiece of 10th-century Muslim architecture, and a large number of 17th-century madrasas.
Old Khiva or Itchan Kala, the inner town protected by brick walls some 10 m high, was an oasis, which was the last resting-place of caravans before crossing the desert to Iran on the Silk Road. This old city is a well-preserved example of Muslim architecture of Central Asia. There are several outstanding structures such as the Djuma Mosque, the mausoleums and the madrasas and the two magnificent palaces built at the beginning of the 19th century by Alla-Kulli-Khan.
The historic town of Samarkand is one of best cities in the Silk Road, specially because it is a crossroad and melting pot of the world’s cultures. Founded in the 7th century B.C. as ancient Afrasiab, Samarkand had its most significant development in the Timurid period from the 14th to the 15th centuries. The major monuments are around Registan and include the Registan mosque and madrasas, Bibi-Khanum mosque, the Shakhi-Zinda compound and tombs and the Gur-Emir ensemble, as well as Ulugh-Beg’s Observatory.